With the development of electronic integration, the trend of miniaturization of devices and devices is becoming more and more obvious, as is the case with power supplies. High power density, miniaturization, thinning, and chipping have always been the direction of power technology development. Then, what factors are mainly determined by the miniaturization of the power supply?

1, working frequency

Improve the operating frequency of switching power supplies - high-frequency power semiconductor devices: increased operating frequency can increase power density. Under the same index requirements, the circuit operating frequency is increased, and a higher frequency power tube is required, so that smaller output inductors and filter capacitors can be used in the circuit, which means that the volume of the inductor and capacitor will be greatly reduced. Small, so the size and weight of the entire circuit will be improved. However, we must note that as the switching frequency continues to increase, the losses of switching components and passive components also increase, and new problems such as high-frequency parasitic parameters and high-frequency EMI are also generated.

In the conventional switching power supply, the volume of the transformer often occupies most of the entire power supply volume. In fact, increasing the operating frequency is very obvious for reducing the volume of the transformer.

Effective volume of the transformer:

Main direction to increase power density

Where r is the current ripple rate, ie r = ΔI / IDC; f is the switching frequency; PO is the rated output power.

It can be seen that the volume of the core is inversely proportional to the switching frequency f, so the higher the frequency, the smaller the core and the smaller the size of the natural transformer. The general high-frequency transformer can easily achieve a frequency of several hundred KHz. Compared with the power frequency transformer under the same power, you will find that the volume difference is large.

2, the use of new transformers

With the improvement of the process technology, in order to further reduce the volume of the transformer, a planar transformer and a piezoelectric transformer can be used, so that the high-frequency power converter can achieve light, small, thin and high power density. The planar core has been successfully developed to achieve a planar transformer design. Since planar transformers require a core and windings to be planar, multi-layer PCB windings should be used. Planar transformers are characterized by high frequency, low profile, low height and high operating frequency. Piezoelectric transformers use the characteristics of "voltage-vibration" transformation and "vibration-voltage" transformation of piezoelectric ceramic materials to transmit energy. The equivalent circuit is like a series-parallel resonance circuit, which is a hot research and application field in the field of power conversion. one.

Main direction to increase power density

3, modular and integrated

A large number of passive components increase the size of the power supply. If we can integrate these passive components together, we can not only reduce the size of the power supply, but also greatly reduce the cost of the power supply, thereby expanding profits. By integrating the power system on a single chip, the power supply is made more compact and smaller, while reducing the lead length and reducing parasitic parameters. Low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) integration technology has become the mainstream technology for passive integration. The LTCC technology is used to embed and integrate the passive components in the power circuit, and because of the LTCC technology, the three-dimensional circuit design can be performed, thereby reducing the volume of the power circuit and integrating the embedded components of the passive device. , so that the installation cost is correspondingly reduced, killing two birds with one stone. In addition, it is also possible to consider the component selection and PCB layout, simplify the circuit, select small package components, and make a reasonable and compact PCB layout layout, thereby further reducing the size of the power supply.

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