1. Review of digital TV turnaround since the digitalization of cable TV

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The digitalization of China's radio and television began with cable television.

In the process of promoting the national digital TV rectification in the National Radio and Television Administration, the development track since 2000 is basically summarized as follows: 1. Initial: Digital TV, Sunshine Government, and massive information. 2. The medium term is: digital TV, the content is king, and the value-added business returns. 3. After 2007, it is: digital TV, two-way transformation, to achieve the entire network. 4. Since 2008, it has been: wired and wireless convergence, creating a N-level NGB network to achieve triple play.

Let's review the progress of national cable TV digitization. In the past few years, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television has successively launched experiences and models such as Qingdao, Foshan, Hangzhou, Shenzhen, Taiyuan and Shaoxing, which have played a positive role in the national digital cable TV.

However, due to the lack of basic software standards such as middleware, although nearly 50 million set-top box conversions have been completed nationwide, many places have completed the two-way transformation of wired networks. The status quo is basically only watching TV programs, and there is no value-added business profit, and there is no The whole network business model was launched.

Therefore, the national radio and television network operators were surprised to find that the original intention of the overall conversion of digital TV did not bring tangible benefits to the users who depended on it, but it caused strong dissatisfaction among cable TV users nationwide. In the process of digitalization of 50 million cable TVs, due to institutional obstacles, fragmentation, and profit-driven, all radio and television network operators only pay attention to hardware, and under the guidance of hardware vendors, they do not pay attention to a basic fact--- Digitalization is inseparable from software.

Software standardization is the soul of digital.

The openness, scalability and standardization of software are the basic prerequisites for the profitability of value-added services.

At present, whether digital TV can develop value-added services, develop value-added services, and whether value-added services can bring returns is still a national thinking and exploration, and has become the heartache of broadcast and television network operators!

Second, the importance of digital TV middleware at the national level

In 2002, the state began research on digital TV basic software and established the National Digital TV Middleware Standards Working Group. In 2004, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television issued the "Guiding Opinions on Cable Digital TV Middleware". The "Opinions" clearly put forward the propositions of special middleware and general middleware. However, it is not clear what is the specific concept of special and general.

In 2006, after the China Digital TV Middleware Standards Group completed the standard specification text, the National Audio, Video and Multimedia Systems and Equipment Standardization Technical Committee urgently issued a letter of advice on the standardization of digital TV middleware to the whole country, and solicited opinions from national experts.

On April 1, 2008, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology approved China's first digital TV basic software related technical standards system (including digital TV middleware standards) in the form of urgent items, and submitted to the National Standards Committee for publication, May 2008, national standards. The committee publishes it on the official website.

In November 2008, in order to accelerate the pace of the integration of the three networks, the state once again listed middleware as a major national information security in the “Key Electronic Devices, High-end General-purpose Chips and Basic Software Products” major scientific and technological projects in 2009. Special item.

The digital TV middleware in the special item is expressed as follows:

"Special" Question 4-3: R&D and Industrialization of Digital TV Embedded Software Platform

Research goal

Grasping the development trend of triple play, developing high-definition interactive digital TV embedded software platform, including embedded operating system and embedded middleware, forming digital TV solution, supporting multi-standard compatibility, multi-protocol integration and multi-service integration, promoting digital TV Industrial innovation development and scale application.

2. Assessment indicators

Technical indicators: (1) form an interactive digital TV embedded software system standard specification; (2) provide a unified digital TV embedded software platform and digital TV software and hardware reference implementation, including embedded operating system, embedded middleware, support mainly Digital TV transmission and coding standards, support domestic digital TV SoC chip; (3) support CA conditional reception processing, high-definition processing, program search and on-demand processing; (4) support interactive application dynamic integration, security protection, upgrade maintenance and personality Customization.

Economic indicators and industrialization requirements: the formation of a national demonstration effect, installed capacity of more than 2.5 million sets.

3. Research and development cycle

January 2009 to December 2010.

From this process, the importance of the basic software of digital TV middleware is fully explained.

Third, digital TV middleware technology is one of the core technologies of digital TV, equivalent to the computer's Windows operating system

Is the most important software support platform for digital TV business

1. The main technical features of the middleware are:

First, digital TV middleware is a very important software platform in the digital TV service system, which provides an operating environment for digital TV interaction and value-added service applications. The operating environment includes support for digital TV content formats and transport protocols, and provides a software interface for digital TV service applications. The middleware standard has standardized and explained the model, functional performance, application programming interface, software reliability and recoverability of the set-top box software platform, and the consistency test and authentication platform of the middleware programming interface. The digital TV receiving device software system can be divided into three levels: the receiving device driver layer and the system resource layer, the middleware software platform software layer, and the application layer.

Secondly, the design of the middleware software system adopts a hierarchical structure and a modular combination to realize the stable and smooth independent upgrade and expansion of the digital television system.

Again, a very important part of the middleware is the Digital TV Application Programming Interface feature pack. Digital TV interaction and value-added services are implemented using Java, a programming language that can be used to develop applications that run on any computer platform.

2. Comparison and analysis of middleware and browser:

Europe, the United States and Japan have experienced the era of choice of browsers and middleware, and eventually adopted the JAWA middleware standard. The middleware standard approved by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China is also based on JAWA technology.

In addition, after the completion of the digital TV transformation, when developing the data broadcasting service, choose the open platform and master the initiative of the operation, neither rely on the set-top box manufacturer nor rely on the middleware or browser manufacturer, but choose to use the third party according to the market rules. ) The development of value-added applications, which is especially important for operators. In this respect, the JAVA platform is more flexible and convenient than the browser.

Browser technology is suitable for computer browsing, and JAWA middleware is more suitable for set-top box operation.

To put it bluntly, the browser only gives the operator a customized, limited-capacity "shelf" (a 38M stream can only broadcast about 10M of data at most). If you need to change the "shelf" structure, you need the browser manufacturer. Make a separate "shelf" as needed. Here, it is important to note that if a new "shelf" is customized through the browser, since the browser itself is bound to the underlying software of the set-top box, it needs to coordinate with many set-top box manufacturers to complete the upgrade. Therefore, online upgrades are very difficult, and the new "shelves" are difficult to use at one time.

The middleware is a standard, open data broadcasting system platform. Just like we use the Windows operating system, we can develop many value-added applications according to our own needs, and it can easily realize online broadcasting of all integrated middleware set-top boxes. Downloadable use.

---- Middleware system is fundamental to the sustainable development of digital TV business

At present, the middleware platform based on Java technology has matured, and the code can be modified and the application functions can be improved according to the needs of operators. Inner Mongolia Radio and Television Network developed and continuously updated EPG, stock market, various information, weather forecast, games and other applications on this platform. According to the actual needs and the user's hobbies and habits, the application can be easily modified and downloaded. In particular, EPG applications that best reflect the performance of set-top boxes are continuously designed and improved in accordance with the ideas of network operators, and are more user-friendly. Moreover, it is possible to develop and add more unique functions from different perspectives such as user habits and ease of operation, so that unified set-top box functions and unified remote control operations become a reality. If you are not using a middleware platform, it is difficult to do this easily. For example, because the browser does not have operational applications such as EPG, operators must coordinate with set-top box manufacturers and third-party software providers to achieve this. It is not convenient for the unified function of the set-top box, but also increases the cost of the set-top box.

More importantly, after adopting middleware technology, the comprehensive cost of front-end hardware and software, terminal hardware investment, and set-top box software development, whether for network operators or set-top box manufacturers, is greatly reduced compared with browsers. Therefore, network operators who are about to start the overall conversion of digital TVs can enter commercial operations as soon as they adopt middleware technology. For network operators who have partially completed the overall conversion of digital TV, simply add frequency points and install middleware front-end broadcast equipment to realize the application of middleware functions.

----The friendliness of the set-top box interface and the ease of learning by users determine the promotion and profitability of value-added services.

The set-top box is friendly, easy to learn, and an important indicator for measuring set-top boxes. Especially for various applications, the difficulty of its operation directly affects the user's frequency of use (similar to the Internet's click-through rate), and it is also directly related to whether value-added services can generate revenue and whether it can develop.

The use of a set-top box interface with middleware is extremely convenient, and the operation of the browser is very cumbersome.

If the computer does not have a mouse, how will the computer be operated?

In the digital TV business, using browser technology is as difficult as removing the mouse to operate the computer. The use of middleware can achieve direct entry and exit of any interface, just as simple as installing a "mouse" for digital TV service operations.

More importantly: the browser can't delete the set-top box memory. After entering the page for multiple times, the set-top box will have a long pause because of the memory consumption. It is very difficult to exit. If you want to continue watching TV, you must close the set-top box. Re-booting, this problem, resulting in data broadcasting and other value-added services can not be carried out, but also caused a large loss of labor costs, not only caused a great loss to the credibility of digital TV value-added services, but also brought great difficulty and helplessness to the value-added services in the future. .

The data broadcasting service using the middleware technology is very convenient for promoting the business because of its simple operation, large amount of information to be broadcasted, fast downloading and browsing, and easy business development.

----How is the resource occupation? The amount of information broadcasted by single-frequency point determines the rapid promotion of data broadcasting services.

The bandwidth used by middleware is much smaller than the browser.

After statistics and testing, the information items advertised in the same bandwidth resource vary widely. Similarly, under the condition of a TS stream of 38M bandwidth, the browser advertises about 500 entries (including pictures), and the bandwidth resources have become saturated. It is very difficult to add entries. The amount of data advertised by the middleware system fully meets the requirements of the operator, and the bandwidth resource can be adjusted and determined according to the amount of data, which is very flexible.

The basic principle is: JAVA binary form download, compressible, HTML to text download, large amount of data, occupying more bandwidth.

-----Simple programming, low labor costs determine the basic conditions for large-scale commercial operation of middleware

When network operators develop value-added services such as data broadcasting, the difficulty of information production and programming is directly related to the amount of information provided. At the same time, the requirements for the technical level of front-end staff are different.

The browser is a product developed based on webpage editing technology. If you want to modify related information items, you must ask the relevant technical personnel to develop and edit the webpage. It takes time and effort, and the technicians must be able to master the web development technology and increase the operating cost of the company. .

The middleware is a product developed based on JAVA technology. The template of the item information is already embedded in the product. If you want to modify related information items, you only need a clerk with high school literacy to edit and insert pictures in the relevant directory. Save time and effort and save the company's operating costs.

The stability of the system determines the long-term upgrade and convenient operation of the middleware.

From a technical point of view, when browsing information with a set-top box with a browser, as the number of open pages increases, the display speed becomes slower and slower. When about 50 pages are opened, the set-top box is inoperable and must be re-started. Such problems are not tolerated by users.

The set-top box that loads the middleware automatically downloads or automatically clears the memory data every time the information interface is opened or the interface is exited, so no matter how the operation is done, it will not crash. This also shows that JAWA technology applications are independent of each other, memory consumption is small, management is more convenient, and performance is more stable.

This technical difference determines whether the set-top box can be used for long-term flexible and autonomous online upgrades. If the set-top box cannot be upgraded online, the value-added service application cannot be carried out.

3, purely technical perspective analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of middleware and browser

Language: Java is a programming language suitable for digital TV distributed and broadcast application environments, security checks, avoiding viruses, HTML is a description language only, suitable for text and images, games and animations cannot be implemented by themselves.

Performance and efficiency: JAVA binary form download, compressible, HTML to text download, large amount of data, occupying more bandwidth.

Technical requirements: HTML Internet content is not portable and cannot meet resolution and other technologies. And JAVA portability, IPTV, games, etc., fully realize cross-platform applications.

Standards: OPENTV, ARIB, MHP, and mobile phones are all JAVA, providing technical support for cross-platform implementation of triple play. HTML such as BML, WEBTV, LIBRATE can not meet the application development requirements.

It is especially noteworthy that many browsers currently use Javascript as a supplement, which is also known as middleware. In fact, this is a very deceptive and more invisible browser. Because the browser uses Javascript, although it implements some interactive functions, it is not Java or scripting language. It depends on each browser support, non-standard, functional interface is not uniform, difficult to maintain, no security, must identify itself Browser, not easy to use. At the same time, the amount of data is large, it is inconvenient to support reading and animation, the memory is difficult to empty, and the download is continuous, which is easy to crash and difficult to browse. If the operator adopts this variant of the browser, after the two-way set-top box is issued, it will be seriously kidnapped by the browser, which brings more risks to the operator.

Application added: Browser and hardware are highly connected, and the middleware architecture is sub-divided. There is no need to upgrade the set-top box.

Programmatic: The current differences: such as single item, keyboard movement; two-way, statistical chart changes.

Megatrend: In the future, the integration of three networks, such as the conversion of mobile platforms to TV platforms, the middleware is completely open, standard, and cross-platform, while browsers cannot.

Upgrade itself: browser upgrade problem is difficult, different manufacturers support, middleware is easy, and has nothing to do with hardware.

4. The application programming function package mainly included in the middleware software platform

Streaming Media Play API (Application Programming Interface): Streaming media playback and control is based on JMF (Java Media Framework) V1.0.

Return Channel Processing API: For networks with return channels, manage transactions such as sessions, server-side communications, and data transfers.

Data Transfer API: Provides access to files carried in the broadcast stream for accessing low latency file systems and data transmitted using the DSM-CC (Digital Storage Media Command and Control) protocol.

Application Launch and List API: Provides a list of applications, selections, and launches.

Event Management API: Provides an efficient and versatile mechanism for sending and listening events, which can be used for inter-thread communication to provide processing methods for other feature package event management classes.

Business Selection API: Provides a common mechanism to provide applications with the ability to play channels or select services.

DVB Service Information API: Provides necessary network information, which is mainly composed of NIT (Network Information Table), PAT (Performance Acceleration Technology), SDT (Service Description Table), and BAT (Group Association Table).

Electronic Program Guide Information API: Provides a more abstract and advanced programming interface to obtain the desired program information.

Accessibility API: Provides information on the level, features, and preferences of the media platform system platform for interactive applications.

5. Description of two business grades of the software platform

According to the application field and network conditions, digital TV receiving equipment can be divided into two business grades: one-way business grade is to integrate audio, video and broadcastable interactive applications, not only to provide audio and video information of traditional TV. Moreover, various interactive services can be provided, wherein the data of the interactive service is transmitted through the service information table method or the data carousel mode, and no separate return channel is needed. Typical interactive applications are: electronic program guides, weather forecasts, local news, stock information, games, and more.

The two-way service level utilizes a network with a return channel, enabling the digital television receiving device to issue various requests to the front end of the broadcast server, and the e-commerce can be performed through the server. Typical services include television stock trading, electronic shopping, sports betting, VOD, etc. .

The two grades of the digital TV middleware platform outline the two different business developments, which have backward compatibility, that is, the two-way business grade must support one-way business grades, but not the middleware provided by each technology supplier. The platform needs to support the entire application area, which is related to the specific platform implementation and market requirements. That is, design and develop various compatible platforms according to various value-added applications of operators. That is to say, the openness of the middleware system platform solves the carrier's bundling concerns, and operators can, at any time (including the choice before the front end of the digital TV system is built, and the front end of the system, according to their own operational needs). Autonomously adding and expanding various value-added application functions can all add various functions autonomously.

4. Middleware provides a platform for independent operation of value-added applications of broadcasting and television networks. The development status and scalability of the middleware are as follows:

After the overall translation is completed, various value-added services will be continuously launched, which need continuous improvement and improvement, and continuous addition and update, so as to meet the various needs of localization, informationization and personalization of digital TV users. The set-top box is issued in advance, and it is impossible to fully consider all value-added services and integrate them once.

From the situation that Inner Mongolia adopts middleware for more than two years, the middleware can indeed download and implement various value-added applications developed in the future after being loaded on the front-end box, so as to truly grasp the initiative of the operation. Through the use of middleware technology in Inner Mongolia, there is no phenomenon of being bundled by software vendors.

The value-added applications currently developed by middleware mainly include:

One-way interactive services include:

The data of the one-way interactive service is transmitted through the service information table mode, the data pipe mode, or the data carousel mode, and no separate return channel is required.

Specific software and applications are:

a. Data broadcast: including DBS broadcast server, SI editor, SI generator, OC generator, EPG editor (electronic program guide), EPG code stream analysis and import software, LoaderSSU system software upgrade, file broadcaster and so on.

b. Stock information; display stock information in real time.

c. Internet news browsing: directly download and broadcast all kinds of content such as Internet news broadcasted by the Xinhua website and other countries.

d. Various types of localized information broadcasting: including: sunshine government affairs, people's life, talent market, seeking medical advice, travel reference, train time, flight time, travel agency, transportation route, food world, leisure and entertainment, automobile market, real estate transaction News, news, famous companies, and more.

e. Advertising: In the main menu of the boot, EPG, news browsing, weather forecast and other layouts to increase the location of text and image ads, you can broadcast ads and carry out value-added services.

f. E-commerce: including: TV shopping, various business information, investment information, puzzle games, and industrialization activities such as development and production of various data business content based on digital TV networks.

g. Create a digital triple-play integration with Party A, including: convergence of CMMB services, business integration of handheld digital terminals (mobile phones, etc.), integration of Internet SP services, and so on. For example: big data volume push time shift data broadcasting service (cultural information sharing project, etc.).

Two-way interactive value-added services include:

The two-way service level utilizes a network with a return channel, enabling the digital television receiving device to issue various requests to the front end of the broadcast server, and the e-commerce can be performed through the server. Typical services include television stock trading, electronic shopping, sports betting, VOD, etc.

Basic two-way: VOD, time-shift TV, two-way game (mahjong, landlords, etc.), two-way advertising, TV shopping,...

Enhance two-way: TV shopping, TV banking, SMS (mobile phone to send text messages to TV or TV to send text messages to mobile phones), TV mail, TV voting (such as Super Girl, etc., can also be made into public opinion, market research, etc.), customized SMS, TV Stocks (transaction platform), TV search (similar to Google), TV business (similar to Alibaba), TV government, TV certification (product authenticity certification), TV payment (various public expenses: electricity, water, etc.)...

5. Only use the middleware system platform to create a truly operational and profitable operational support platform.

At present, the national standard digital TV middleware technology in the large-scale operation of the Inner Mongolia Radio and Television Network, summed up some operating projects and value-added business profit model, if the industry colleagues are interested, they can provide a proposal including the "Cable Network Development Data Broadcast Operation" "", "TV shopping guide project design program" and other series of operating models for your reference.

6. Basic information on the use of middleware in Inner Mongolia Radio and Television Network

At present, the national broadcasting and television network operators basically believe that digital TV has no real value-added services that can be profitable. The root causes of this understanding are:

Most of the nearly 50 million set-top boxes that have been transferred nationwide are browser-type. These set-top boxes are all loaded with the browser proprietary software protocol. Due to the inherent technical limitations of the browser in the digital TV service, the operators lose their operations. The initiative, so that the advantages of broadcasting can not be truly played, resulting in a waste of a large amount of bandwidth resources replaced by digital.

According to the survey, among the national broadcasting and television network operators, only the Inner Mongolia Radio and Television Network has adopted the national standard middleware technology. Of course, the Inner Mongolia Radio and Television Network has also had a great hesitation in the process of using middleware technology. It also experienced the August 2006 General Administration Argument, comparing the middleware and browser on the same platform, in November 2006 to Shenzhen. Tianwei, Hangzhou Cable, Shaoxing Cable and many other places use browsers to compare and compare, and finally decided to adopt middleware technology.

We know that after the completion of the overall translation, various value-added services will be continuously launched, and continuous improvement and improvement are required to meet the various needs of localization, informationization and personalization of digital TV users. The set-top box is issued in advance, and it is impossible to fully consider all value-added services and integrate them once.

From the situation that Inner Mongolia adopts middleware for more than two years, the middleware can indeed download and implement various value-added applications developed in the future after the front-end loading, and download and execute it on the set-top box that has been issued at any time, so that the initiative of the operation is truly grasped. The phenomenon of being bundled by middleware software vendors occurs.

In 2004, Inner Mongolia Radio and Television Network began the middleware test of national independent intellectual property rights. Before the end of 2006, it had been engaged in middleware technical cooperation with Shanghai Lanxin Company. At the beginning of 2007, Shanghai Lanxin was under the custody of ST, and 3H middleware company was affected by Inner Mongolia. Entrusted by the Broadcasting and Television Network Information Company to help them develop and improve the stock application, query application, TV shopping guide application, EPG revision, etc., and completed the continuous modification and improvement of various interfaces, and began to cooperate in the operation of TV shopping guide projects.

At present, 3H middleware company has set up a special value-added business operation company in Inner Mongolia. The huge potential of value-added business operation initiative is gradually emerging. Various value-added applications are loaded at any time and downloaded to the already distributed set-top box. Inner Mongolia's Sunshine Government Affairs Platform Project has been launched. A large number of government-related information is connecting the government with the vast number of users. From the party and government of the autonomous region to the government information and investment investment information of various cities and counties, it has become an important part of data broadcasting.

Therefore, the middleware is standardized and open. After adopting the middleware, the operator is completely autonomously operated.

Seven, recommend the available middleware

1. The maturity of middleware technology

The 3H middleware system platform is based on the integration of MHP, ZENTEK and other international mature middleware technologies. In 2006, it completed the basic framework and systematic development in line with China's national conditions. In the following years, in accordance with China's digital TV middleware standards (draft), on the basis of continuous improvement and improvement, in the nearly two million digital TV networks of the Inner Mongolia Radio and Television Network, various value-added applications have been continuously The development and improvement of the three basic technologies and operational support systems that meet the requirements of broadcasting and television network operators have been formed:

(1) China's standard digital TV middleware software system platform.

It is in full compliance with the digital TV middleware standard approved by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on April 1, 2008 and submitted to the National Standards Committee's Letter on Seven National Standards for Approving <The Subjective Evaluation Method of Image and Sound of Digital Television Receiving Equipment>. It also provides comprehensive support for cross-platform business integration of triple play.

The system platform is the only middleware system platform that has been running stably for more than two years in a million digital TV networks in the country. It has completed various single-dual digital TV function tests and is fully equipped with large-scale commercial operation conditions.

The middleware system platform provides digital TV middleware products based on JAVA technology in line with the national standard (approved version).

Supports EPG, CA, DVBDSMCC-OC protocol standards, and various value-added applications developed in JAVA or HTML.

Supports JPG/GIF/FLASHI/dynamic GIF/PNG and other image formats, as well as electronic bulletin boards and other functions suitable for digital TV applications.

The platform adopts a separate and open architecture, which fully meets the requirements of operators' migration, upgrade and replacement, and fully meets the business development needs of future cross-platform triple-play integration.

(2) China's standard digital TV front-end software solution.

Fully in line with national radio and television industry DVB-C standards, including digital TV HD, SD broadcast, transmission related standards, data broadcasting, EPG, stock, games, weather forecast, query, VOD, time-shift single-way business solutions, meet Various business upgrade requirements for the future three networks.

(3) China's standard digital content creation center and open interactive content editing tools without programming.

Fully meet the operator's content and value-added application creation localization requirements, especially for operators and all types of digital TV enthusiasts to provide interactive programming visual editing tools without programming.

The digital TV middleware system platform is fully in line with national standards. All kinds of system protocol interfaces are completely open to operators, and will not retain any private things, fully meeting the requirements of operators for development and withdrawal.

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Short circuit protection:The following test shall be performed. Charge batteriesas specified in  ; use of 4.6.3 is permitted. Measure and record the OCV. Short each battery across all the positive and negative terminals with a total external resistance not greater than 50 milliohms. After one hour remove the short from across the terminals. Measure and record the OCV. Stabilize batteries at the normal conditions of 4.3.1 for not less than 2 hours. Chargebatteries in accordance with 4.6; use of 4.6.3 is permitted. Stabilize batteries at normal conditions for not less than 2 hours, then discharge the battery in accordance with The battery shall meet the requirements of

Li-Ion Battery With Lcd Display 

Charge voltage:                                 16.8V

Nominal voltage :                               14.8V  (4S7P)

Initial impedance :                            120mΩ

Nominal capacity:                             19.6Ah

Minimum capacity:                            19.4Ah

Communication methods :                  SMBUS data communication

Electricity quantity show:                    LCD Electricity quantity show

Charge current:                                Standard Charging::0.2C5A (3.9A)

  Rapid charge:                                 0.5C5A C(9.8A) Max

Standard Charging method :              3.9A(0.2C5A) CC(constant current)charge to 16.8V,then CV(constant voltage 16.8V)charge till charge current decline to ≤196mA(≈0.01C5A)

Charging time:Standard Charging:      6.5hours(Ref.)

Rapid charge:                                   3.5 hours(Ref.)

Max.discharge current:                      9.8A(0.5C5A)

Discharge cut-off voltage:                 10.0V

Cycle life (0.2C5A/0.2C5A) :              500 items,≧80%DOD; 300 times,≧80%DOD

Operating temperature :                   Charging:  0℃~45℃



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