The lighting project of urban lighting environment is the continuation of the construction, reconstruction and expansion of the construction industry. Bidding and bidding are two organic and closely related components of the tendering and contracting system for lighting environment lighting projects in construction projects. It is an economic activity between legal persons and is protected by national laws. Lighting environmental engineering tendering and bidding is the main form of competition in the lighting products market.
The contractor (construction unit) shall prepare bidding documents for the proposed project in accordance with the statutory tendering procedures, and invite or invite the contractor (construction unit) to determine the contractor through competitive selection. In order to be able to select contractors with short construction period, low cost, good project quality and high social reputation, the contractor must first pass the advertisement, notice, etc. according to the requirements of the proposed project, its construction period, quality and project cost. Form to get the understanding and understanding of most contractors.
The contractor obtains the project contracting right through competition according to the statutory bidding procedure. For the proposed project, not any contractor can bid on it. Similarly, for the construction unit, it is not what kind of engineering projects are going to bid. It is necessary to agree with the bidding requirements of the construction unit and combine the capabilities of the enterprise to master the factors such as construction period, quality and cost. After internal argumentation, decide whether The proposed project will be tendered before the project is contracted through competition.
First, the tendering method
1.1 Open tendering Open tendering means that the bidding unit publicly publishes bidding advertisements through radio, television, newspapers and other publicity media to attract relevant construction units or contractors to participate in the bidding. Open tendering is a more widely used method of bidding. Its characteristic is that the bidding unit has sufficient choices and implements a complete bidding procedure. Through the full and equal competition between contractors, it is beneficial to reduce the cost, improve the quality of the project and shorten the construction period. But this method is time consuming and costly. After the public bid opening, the bid price of each submitted bid will be queued according to the high and low, the lowest price is ranked first, called the head label, and the highest price is listed at the end, called the final label. Pre-select a few (the head label may not be pre-selected), the rest will be eliminated, and then choose a reputable unit as the winning bidder.
1.2 Inviting bid invitation to invite bidding, that is, the bidding unit shall, through letters and other forms, issue invitations to bid invitations to certain engineering construction units or contractors with certain visibility and capacity, and determine the bid winning unit by bidding or negotiation. The characteristic of this method is that the bidding unit is familiar with the bidding unit and has a certain degree of trust. There are fewer disputes in the signing and implementation of the contract, and the cost of bidding and time is also more applicable than the current bidding method, especially in lighting project bidding.
1.3 Negotiation Bidding For small projects or time-critical projects, the construction unit may directly invite the construction unit to negotiate to determine the project cost and construction period. Since the owner only negotiates with one contractor, the contractor does not compete and often quotes higher.
At present, among the three types of bidding methods, more are public bidding and invitation bidding. Public bidding is currently the most widely used method of bidding, and it must be carried out in accordance with a complete tendering procedure. This kind of bidding method, the bidding unit has sufficient room to choose the contractor, and is suitable for large and medium-sized construction projects. Inviting bidding is more flexible. The bidding unit may issue bidding notices to several trusted construction units according to the characteristics of the project, and generally determine the winning bidder by means of negotiation. This way adapts to professional construction projects. If the latter is adopted, more than three units should be invited to participate. Second, the tendering procedures of the tendering process are shown in Figure 1-1. The tendering is generally divided into the preparation stage, the tendering stage, and the final stage of the contract. 2.1 Preparation stage before bidding (1) Forming a bidding team for lighting environment lighting project; (2) The bidding unit will apply to the bidding office; (3) Prepare the bidding documents (4) Prepare the bidding base. 2.2 Bidding stage (1) Issue bidding announcement or issue invitation bidding letter; (2) Conduct qualification examination of bidding unit; (3) Sell or send bidding documents and design drawings and technical materials to qualified bidders; (4) Organize the bidding unit to survey the project site and answer the questions raised by the bidder; (5) Accept the tender of the bidder. 2.3 Completion of the bidding stage (1) Establish the bid evaluation organization, formulate the bid evaluation method; (2) Review the bidding documents, hold the bid opening meeting; (3) Organize the bid evaluation and award; (4) Issue to the bid winner The bid winning notice; (5) Signing the contract with the winning bidder. III. Responsibilities of the Bidding Party and Bidding Documents 3.1 Responsibilities of the Bidding Party (1) Determine the scope of the project to be contracted, that is, decide whether to complete the whole process of the construction project, or to distribute the package in stages, or to distribute the sub-projects and sub-projects. , professional engineering and other packages. (2) Determine the contracting method and contracting content, that is, decide the type of contracting contract (total price contract, unit contract or cost reimbursement contract). (3) Selecting the method of issuing the package, that is, according to the specific circumstances of the contracted project, it is decided to adopt different methods of bidding, such as open tendering, limited tendering, invitation and negotiation, and issue a tender notice or invitation to tender. (4) Prepare the bidding base and prepare the bidding documents to prepare a large amount of information for the bidding. (5) Review the bidder's qualifications, issue a bidding notice to the pre-qualified contractor, and issue the bid. (6) Organize the survey site and answer the questions raised by the bidder. (7) Accept and properly keep the bidding letter of the bidder. (8) Open the bid, review the bid and organize the bid evaluation. Review and compare the quotation, construction technical plan, construction period and finance of each bidding document. (9) Negotiate with the winning bidder and sign a contract or agreement. 3.2 Bidding Documents After the bidding application is approved, the bidding unit will prepare the bidding documents. The project bidding documents are the programmatic and implementation documents for the tendering unit to prepare the project bidding, which is the main basis for bidding units to conduct bidding. The main contents of the bidding documents are as follows: (1) Comprehensive description of the project. Including the name, scale, address, scope of project contracting, project name, bidding method and site conditions, qualification requirements for bidders, etc.; (2) construction drawings and technical specifications; (3) main terms of the contract. Including contract scope and method, start-up, completion date, quality, technical requirements, equipment, material requirements, project price settlement methods, etc.; (4) construction requirements of special projects and technical specifications adopted; (5) bidding instructions. Including the date of explanation of the bidding documents and the survey site, the start and end time of the bidding documents, and the date of bid opening; (6) The amount of the bidding guarantee (generally 1%-2.5% of the project cost); (7) The bill of quantities. As the bidder, calculate the quotation and the basis for bid evaluation by the bidding unit. 3.3 The formulation of the bidding base is the key link of the bidding work. The bidding base is estimated by the bidding unit based on the design drawings and the relevant project (pre-) calculation quota, the rate of charge rate, etc., and is reviewed by the local construction authority and the Construction Bank. The development of the bidding requirements is completed before the tender documents are issued. The bidding base is one of the main basis for bidding and reviewing work. It must be strictly kept confidential before bid opening. If there is a leak, the responsible person should be seriously dealt with until economic and legal sanctions are given. (1) The calculation of the base shall be based on the design drawings, the current local engineering (pre-) calculation quota, and the regional unit valuation table. Whether the bidding base is accurate and reasonable, on the one hand, it directly affects whether the investment of the project can be reasonably applied; on the other hand, it directly affects the reasonable income and bidding enthusiasm of the bidding enterprise. Therefore, the base should be formulated with a serious attitude and a scientific approach. The determination of the base price shall be based on the cost of the project (pre-) calculation, and the cost of the measures required to meet the special requirements of the project, the cost of the price adjustment of the materials, and the unforeseen expenses shall also be considered. To this end, the determination of the base should generally be carried out according to the following requirements: it should be controlled within the budgetary estimate or the revised budget; the reasonable price of the project should be reflected; efforts should be made to reduce the cost, and the basic and reasonable economic interests of the bidding enterprise should be considered to mobilize the enthusiasm of both parties. (2) The contents of the base are usually composed of Table 3-1, Table 3-2, Table 3-3, Table 3-4 and Table 3-5.