Architectural night lighting is the transition from a twilight environment to a luminous environment. In the design of architecture and environment, the influence of various light elements on the nighttime atmosphere should be considered, so that the observer can obtain good light color illumination and psychological feeling at any position relative to the environment, and with the observer's point of view Movement creates an ever-changing impression of space.

Nightscape lighting design features of a campus building

China's colleges and universities are mostly relatively independent and special community environments, which have the characteristics of urban communities and urban residential areas, and elements different from ordinary urban environments. The night illumination of the campus should be simple and elegant, and the light color should be light and elegant, but not as beautiful as the commercial district or leisure and entertainment venues, emphasizing the rendering of its bustling and rich atmosphere. Applying the organic combination of lighting art and science and technology, interpreting the cultural connotation of campus environment, highlighting the artistic characteristics of campus architecture, and representing the openness of university campus has become the universal pursuit of contemporary campus architecture night lighting. Therefore, its design is a relatively independent subject, subject to education, aesthetics, philosophy, psychology, economics, architecture and many other aspects, requiring lighting designers and architects to work together from design thinking, design concepts and design techniques. Thoroughly understand its unique creative laws.

1 Focus on the environment, pay attention to the context

Under the guidance of the policy of “rejuvenating the country through education and rejuvenating the country through science and technology”, the construction of colleges and universities in China has developed rapidly. The campus environment highlights the campus atmosphere and regulates the campus architecture. Therefore, the campus night lighting must be attached to the campus environment. The meaning of "environment" here includes the elements of society, culture, time, history, and psychology. The campus environment is the most direct, most specific and influential element in the design of night lighting for campus buildings. The understanding and grasp of it is the key to the success or failure of night lighting design in a specific creative space.

2 Night lighting utilization resources

Campus buildings, especially complex buildings, are mostly divided into large open spaces. In order to create good lighting and ventilation conditions, the window opening area is large. The indoor space utilization rate is high, the use time is long, the indoor lighting requirements are efficient and clear, and the illumination is sufficient. Therefore, it is not necessary to install special internal light-transmitting lighting equipment, as much as possible to use the lighting required for indoor functions as the illumination source of the building night scene, let the indoor light shine outward, and use a large number of windows to form a bright luminous surface to decorate the architectural night scene. Make it unique and lively. In this way, indoor lighting resources can be fully utilized, saving lighting investment and operating costs, and facilitating maintenance and repair of lighting equipment. “Inside Light” has become the most unique and fascinating place in the night view of campus buildings.

3 Highlight key points and strengthen display

Campus night lighting can be flexibly diversified, emphasizing the characteristics and important areas of the building, deliberately creating the night atmosphere of the campus. By fully dissecting the functions, features and styles of the objects being illuminated, the paper understands the specific effects of light and shadow and the environment, simulates the night scenes of each viewpoint and line of sight, and enhances the visual perception of architecture and environment. Enrich the building's size with night scene lighting that exaggerates or exaggerates the building's bumps.

The exterior wall materials of campus buildings are generally soft and stable in color, and the use of light colors should be harmonious and bright. To express the characteristics and texture of building materials, it is necessary to master the direction and angle of use of light. The beam of illumination is generally not suitable for vertical illumination of the illuminated surface. If the illuminated surface is a large block, the incident angle is generally controlled between 55° and 85°. If the illuminated surface has a large increase or decrease, the incident angle is 0° to 60°. In order to form a moderate contrast between light and dark and good shadows. The lighting engineer must make an on-site adjustment of the luminaire angle to achieve the best lighting results.

4 Respect for nature and add environmental anger

The design of the night illumination of the campus garden is an integral part of the design of the campus building environment. Through the changes in the brightness and color of the lights, the garden lighting shows the gentleness and broadness of the green grass in the night, revealing the bright and splendid flowers of the magnificent flowers, editing the trees and the shadows of the trees, and easily connecting the buildings and campus, campus and nature, nature and people.

Second Yifu Science and Technology Building Night Lighting Design

1 Environmental analysis

Huazhong University of Science and Technology campus is a typical school community, the campus is elegant, quiet and culturally rich. The Yifu Science and Technology Building is located in the central area of ​​the campus, which is the intersection of the north-south axis of symmetry and the east-west axis of symmetry. It is not only an important node of the campus's geographical location, but also an important node in the historical development of the school. Along the axis of the campus of Yuyuan Road, the changes and progress of the school are clearly visible: the first floor of the south is a testimony of the campus from scratch, telling the history of that hard work, the first generation of the school's iconic The library is the second generation of landmark buildings in the forefront of the country’s key universities. The Yifu Science and Technology Building demonstrates the enthusiasm of the school and the heroic feelings of welcoming the third major development of the school. The school's cross-century landmark. Therefore, as the nightscape lighting design of the science and technology building, it is necessary to coordinate with the existing atmosphere, fully reflect the building's role in the campus environment, but also to have the atmosphere of the times, but also to consider the sustainability of campus development.

From the faint skyline of the Jiajia Mountain Peak, the top of the tower is the top of the North Building and the upper floor of the North Building. Next is the outline of the South Building and the rhythmic main facade. Finally, it is integrated with the library. Courtyard. Far and deep, the night scene lighting design first ensures that this main line of sight has a complete coordinated overall lighting effect, making people a part of the environment, so that the distant view can get a good sense of space; at the same time, it should be able to properly reflect The harmonization of the first contour (the overall environmental line of sight) and the second contour (the outer contour of the building).

2 Subject presentation

The night illumination of campus buildings should consciously guide people to deeply interpret the connotation of architecture. The main entrance of the building is adjacent to Yuyuan Road in the east. The opposite side of the road is the central square in the planning. The east facade becomes the main point of view of the entire site. The local lighting focuses on the characteristics of the building's façade and the rich shape. To the role of the prompt topic.

The Science and Technology Building utilizes “inside and outside” to express the academic atmosphere of the campus. On the other hand, the Science and Technology Exhibition Hall and the School History Exhibition Hall of the East Building have adopted large-area floor-to-ceiling windows, which use “inside light” to make The indoor space is clear, which directly highlights the cultural connotation and technological progress of the campus.

The main façade of the building is interspersed and decomposed, and is partially illuminated at the top of the top. It is concealed by low-power high-efficiency metal halide lamp, high-pressure sodium lamp and energy-saving fluorescent lamp. Seeing no light, reducing glare, limiting backlighting, highlighting The details make the architectural style change vivid and rich, reflecting the rich campus characteristics, expressing the rich, active, deep and open campus culture.

In order to make the night scene of the science and technology building harmonious with the environment, it becomes an essence of the natural environment. The external floodlights are illuminated by high-pressure sodium lamps, and the illumination should not be too high. The average illumination is about 1/3 of the local illumination, which makes the lighting layered. The changing overall lighting complements the delicate detailing of the lighting, creating an overall image of the building with its unique character and matching the environment. The indoor white light transmission and the outdoor yellow exterior light complement each other, which adds a touch of harmonious color to the whole building. It is simple, bright, soft and beautiful, which avoids the simplification and simplification of the building facade lighting and avoids abuse. The architectural lighting caused by colored light is contrary to the campus atmosphere.

3 visual guidance

At the main entrance, the high-efficiency metal halide lamps are used to accentuate the smooth lines and delicate shapes of the art porch. At the south entrance and exit, the rough shape of the mining lamp echoes the regular building structure, while the metal frosted layer gives the luminaire craftsmanship to blend with the building body. At the west entrance and exit, metal halide lamps are used to create a strong light and shadow effect on the building structure. Moderate changes in lighting at the entrance and exit, one is to highlight and guide, and the other is to satisfy people's spiritual feelings, to uplift emotions, and to make the building full of expression.

At the east entrance, if the light is projected in the same direction as the main viewpoint, the lighting effect will be dull and boring. The upper part of the entrance is a large-area glass curtain wall, while the glass is a light-transmitting material with a low reflectivity. If the vertical projection light is used as the illumination source, the light projected onto the glass surface will be directly into the room, and the glass curtain wall will still be dark, which not only fails to achieve the desired illumination effect, but also causes serious light interference to the room.

Floodlighting facilities should not affect the smooth flow of people, and should guide and encourage people's accessibility. Adjacent to the east and south facades of the school's main road, the large outdoor area is used to ensure traffic and evacuation. Therefore, the floodlights are installed in a high pole, and the light source is hidden between the tall French sycamore trees near the main road. Avoid the glare of high-power high-pressure sodium lamps. At present, the top of the North Building is the highest point in the central area of ​​the school. The high-pressure sodium lamp is used to make the tower top building a strong warm light, highlighting the volume of the building, showing the flourishing development of the school and the prosperous progress of science and technology, and will become a pedestrian on campus. The guide light of the area.

4 brewing pleasant garden night scene

There are diversified outdoor green belts around the Science and Technology Building. The lawn flowers are surrounded by low garden lights, and the illumination should not be too high and should not be uniform. The arrangement of the lamps in the small lawn is random and embellished. The installation of the lamps should be concealed and buried, and the lighting equipment should not be destroyed. The night illumination of large flat or sloped green grasses should be able to highlight the inherent greenness of the grass. It is advisable to set a low turf light to illuminate from top to bottom, guiding people's eyes to the green grass.

The night illumination of the flower bed should use a light source with good color rendering index Ra ≥ 80 (such as incandescent lamp, compact fluorescent lamp, metal halide lamp or tungsten halogen lamp). The lamp is placed in the center of the flower bed or in the direction of the observer.

The lighting of trees does not have to deliberately use some light source to change the true color of the leaves. Instead, it should pursue a certain color to enrich the appearance of the plants and emphasize the origin of the plants. Use a suitable light to slant upwards around the trunk with the canopy as the illumination object to ensure that the leaves of the visual surface are fully illuminated. High-pressure mercury lamps are rarely used for floodlighting due to poor color and color rendering, but they are very suitable for plant lighting. Their light color is greenish, which makes the leaves of the plants to be bright green, compared to the domestic green metal halide lamps. And the metal halide lamp with green filter light to illuminate the landscape is closer to nature.

Three design frontier thinking

The design of night lighting for campus buildings is in the ascendant. There are still many difficulties to be studied: 1 At present, there is no clear standard of illumination in China, the design reference system is mixed, and there is no scientific basis; 2 the characteristics of building materials vary widely, and the choice is suitable for night light. The environmental construction materials and the selection of nighttime light environment suitable for building materials, the depth and breadth are relatively increased; 3 the planning of economical and rational lighting solutions has become cross-science, increasingly complex; 4 night lighting and energy saving, night lighting and light pollution The contradiction is growing.

Campus night lighting is a multi-disciplinary integrated art that combines with the campus environment. Its design must conform to the cultural connotation of the campus. This topic is waiting for the designers to explore together.

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