1, direct lighting
Light is emitted through the luminaire, where 90%-100% of the luminous flux reaches the assumed working surface. This illumination is direct illumination. This kind of illumination has a strong contrast between light and dark, and can create interesting and vivid light and shadow effects, which can highlight the dominant position of the working surface in the whole environment, but due to the high brightness, glare should be prevented. Such as factories, general offices, etc.
2, semi-direct lighting
The semi-direct illumination method is that the lampshade made of translucent material covers the upper part of the light source, and 60%-90% of the light is concentrated to the working surface, and 10%-40% of the light is diffused by the translucent lampshade and diffused upward. The light is softer. This type of luminaire is often used for general lighting in lower rooms. Since the diffused light can illuminate the flat top, the height of the top of the room is increased, resulting in a higher sense of space.
3. Indirect lighting
The indirect illumination method is an illumination method of indirect light generated by shielding a light source, wherein 90%-100% of the luminous flux acts on the working surface through the ceiling or wall reflection, and less than 10% of the light directly illuminates the working surface. There are usually two methods of treatment. One is to install an opaque lampshade on the lower part of the bulb, and the light is reflected on the flat top or other objects to reflect indirect light. One is to set the bulb in the light trough, and the light is reflected from the flat top to the indoor. Indirect light. When this type of illumination is used alone, pay attention to the heavy shadows in the lower part of the opaque lampshade. It is usually used in conjunction with other lighting methods to achieve special artistic effects. Shopping malls, clothing stores, conference rooms, etc., generally use as ambient lighting or improve the brightness of the scene.
4, semi-indirect lighting
Semi-indirect illumination, just like semi-direct illumination, puts a translucent lampshade in the lower part of the light source, more than 60% of the light is directed to the flat top, forming an indirect light source, and 10%-40% of the light is diffused downward through the lampshade. This method can produce a special lighting effect, so that the lower room has a higher feeling. It is also suitable for small space parts in residential buildings, such as entrance halls, aisles, clothing stores, etc. It is usually best to use this lighting method in the learning environment.
5, diffuse lighting
The diffuse illumination method uses the refraction function of the luminaire to control the glare and spread the light around. There are two general forms of such illumination. One is that light is emitted from the upper opening of the lampshade through the flat top, both sides are diffused from the translucent cover, and the lower part is diffused from the grille. The other is to use a translucent lampshade to completely block the light to create a diffuse. This type of lighting has soft lighting and visual comfort for the bedroom.
There are three types of lighting layouts, namely basic lighting (environmental lighting), accent lighting and decorative lighting. Basic lighting is generally used in office spaces, while homes and some clothing stores use a combination of three. The specific lighting method depends on the scene.
Indoor lighting uses the coefficient method to calculate the average illuminance:
In the usual illuminance calculation, if we know the utilization coefficient "CU", we can easily use an empirical formula to quickly calculate the average illuminance value of the indoor working surface we want. We usually refer to this calculation method as "Using the coefficient method to obtain the average illuminance", also called the lumen coefficient method.
The illuminance calculation has roughly calculated and accurately calculated two kinds. For example, suppose the overall illuminance like a house should be at 100 lux (lx), and even 90 lux (lx) will not have a big impact on life. However, if it is road lighting, the situation is different. Assuming that the road illumination must be 20 lux (lx), if it is 18 lux (lx), it may cause frequent traffic accidents. The same is true for shops. For example, the overall illuminance of a store is 500 lux (lx). Due to the illuminance of 600 lux (lx), the number and power of lighting fixtures will increase and have an economic impact. No matter which kind of illuminance calculation is important. Although only a rough estimate, there will be a 20%-30% error. Therefore, it is recommended to use professional lighting design software to carry out accurate simulation calculations under normal circumstances, and to control the error to a minimum (such as the "Sanxiong Aurora Lighting Design Software" independently developed by our company last year and our company is about to launch in May. New lighting design software).
However, sometimes we may not use lighting software to simulate calculations due to special circumstances or site conditions. The average illuminance in the calculation of floor, table and work surface can be calculated by the following basic formula: slightly estimated illuminance: illuminance (lux lx) = luminous flux (Lumens lm)/area (m2) The illuminance of an average of 1 lux (lx) is the brightness of a luminous flux of 1 lumen (lm) on an area of â€‹â€‹1 square meter (m2).
When using this method to obtain the average illuminance of the floor surface of the room, in the case of the overall lighting fixture, the following formula can be used for calculation.
Average illuminance (Eav) = single luminaire luminous flux Î¦ Ã— number of luminaires (N) Ã— space utilization factor (CU) Ã— maintenance factor (K) Ã· floor area (length Ã— width)
Formula Description: 1. The luminous flux Î¦ of a single luminaire refers to the total luminous flux value of the bare light source of the light source contained in this luminaire. 2. The space utilization factor (CU) refers to how many percent of the light beam emitted from the lighting fixture reaches the floor and the work surface, so it is related to the design, installation height, room size and reflectivity of the lighting fixture. The rate also changes. If the common lamp panel is used in a space of about 3 meters, the utilization factor CU can be between 0.6--0.75; while the suspension lamp aluminum cover, the space height is 6-10 meters, the utilization factor CU takes the value range of 0.7- -0.45; downlight lamps are used in a space of about 3 meters, and the utilization factor CU can be 0.4--0.55; while the light fixtures like the light band brackets are used in a space of about 4 meters, the utilization factor CU can take 0.3--0.5. . The above data is empirical value and can only be used for rough estimation. If the specific value is to be accurately calculated, it must be provided by the company in writing. The relevant parameters are for reference only. 3. It refers to the aging of the lighting fixture, the decrease of the output power of the luminaire and the increase of the use time of the light source, the light source is fading, or the space reflection efficiency is reduced due to the accumulation of dust in the room, so that the illuminance is reduced and multiplied. Coefficient. Generally, the maintenance factor K is 0.8 in a clean place, such as living room, bedroom, office, classroom, reading room, hospital, high-end brand store, art gallery, museum, etc.; and general stores, supermarkets, business halls, theaters The maintenance factor K of the machining workshop, station and other places is 0.7; and the maintenance coefficient K of the place with a large pollution index can be about 0.6.
At present, several kinds of lighting methods commonly used indoors, according to the spatial distribution of the luminous flux of the lamps and the installation method of the lamps, the indoor lighting methods can be divided into five types: