In the design stage of residential light environment, there are standards for sunshine and lighting in residential buildings, but the lighting design standards are relatively incomplete. To this end, we have proposed the quantity and quality requirements of the residential light environment in accordance with the well-off level through investigation and experimental research, providing technical basis for the design standards and design methods of residential light environmental performance in the future, and making good preparations for the design standards of modern residential environment in China. Technical reserve.

1. Natural lighting of the house

A good natural light environment in a home should meet the following basic requirements:

(1) Living rooms and kitchens such as bedrooms and living rooms (halls) should be directly lit to meet the physical, psychological and health needs of the residents.

(2) To have a good lighting window orientation, preferably south facing, southeast or southwest facing second, east and west facing again, most northeast or northwest facing and north facing, in order to obtain enough natural light.

(3) To meet the requirements of the area ratio of the window and the minimum value of the daylighting coefficient in the "Design Standard for Architectural Lighting".

(4) For rooms with sunshine requirements, the requirements of the “Code for Planning and Design of Urban Residential Areas” shall be met.

(5) All the residential rooms in the residential building should be tested for lighting design and calculation and after completion of the project.

2. Measured survey object

3. Measured survey results

(1) Except for the living room of one household with direct lighting and the window area ratio of one master bedroom, the residential lighting requirements of the “Building Lighting Design Standards” can not meet the requirements of residential lighting. 7 window area ratio requirements, the bathroom can also meet the window area ratio of more than 1/10.

(2) Among the 14 households surveyed, half of the living rooms and bedrooms meet the minimum requirement of more than 1% of the daylighting coefficient, and half of the living room and bedroom lighting standards have a minimum value of less than 1%. 0.5% standard requirement.

(3) In the survey, whether it is a multi-storey residential building or a high-rise residential building, it can meet the height-to-height ratio of the building in the “Code for Planning and Design of Urban Residential Areas”.

(4) Households are more satisfied with the evaluation of lighting.

(2) Artificial light environment

1. Residential artificial lighting requirements

Artificial lighting in residential buildings should do the following:

(1) The lighting of the house should have a general idea;

(2) Each space in the house should have a corresponding level of illumination;

(3) Energy-saving light sources or lamps should be used in the house;

(4) The house should adopt reasonable lighting methods;

(5) Glare should be controlled.

2. Survey respondent

This time, we conducted a survey on the illuminance of 83 rooms in 14 houses in Beijing.

3. Lighting survey results

The survey results of residential lighting survey are as follows:

(1) Living room:

The maximum illuminance Emax can reach 74lx~454lx, generally above 100lx, and the residents reflect the lighting effect better. [Note: Illuminance: Illuminance is the luminous flux incident on the unit area. The unit of illuminance is lux (lx), 1 (lx)= 1 (lm / m2)]; minimum illumination Emin is 24lx ~ 191lx, generally below 75lx average illumination Eav is 60lx ~ 348lx, generally around 75lx ~ 100lx.

(2) Master bedroom:

The maximum illuminance Emax can reach 37lx~351lx, generally above 75lx; the minimum illuminance Emin is 29lx~273lx, generally below 50lx; the average illuminance Eav is 31lx~315lx, generally about 50lx, and the small amount is above 75lx.

(3) The second bedroom: The maximum illumination Emax can reach 32lx~290lx, generally below 75lx, a few is higher than 75lx; the minimum illumination Emin is generally lower than 50lx, a few is higher than 75lx; the average illumination Eav is generally between 50lx~75lx.

(4) Restaurant: generally at 75lx left

(5) Kitchen: generally around 50lx.

(6) Bathroom: generally around 50lx. 4. According to the survey results:

(1) From the installation of the lamps in the house, the number of lamps is between 12盏 and 46盏, and the number generally increases with the increase of the building area. Usually between 15 盏 and 22 ,, the average is about 20 。.

(2) Among the surveyed households, the usage rate of incandescent lamps is 70%, while energy-saving fluorescent lamps (including compact fluorescent lamps) account for only 30%.

(3) Among the households surveyed, the total power of the lamps is between 421W and 2300W. The households with high power are all or most of them adopt incandescent lamps. In the households with an area of ​​about 200m2, the lighting installation power is about 600W. And all use compact energy-saving fluorescent lamps.

(4) From the installation power distribution per unit area of ​​the illumination source, the average is 7.2 W/m2 between 4.3 W/m2 and 11.5 W/m2, and the three households using compact fluorescent lamps are 4.3 W/m2 to 5.3. Between W/m2.

(5) From the subjective reflection of the households, the users accept their respective artificial light environments. 4. Measured survey results

(1) The average cost of the living room (hall) for general activities is 75lx. When installing the luminaire, the illuminance should be considered when the agglomeration is higher than the illuminance during the general activity, so the average illuminance is directly charged at 100~150~200lx. It is appropriate. The current standard of China's current activities is 20 ~ 30 ~ 50lx.

(2) The bedroom is generally 75lx, and the current standard is 20-30~50lx. For lying, local lighting, such as bedside table lamps, wall lamps, etc., should be provided to provide high illumination for reading, preferably 300lx.

(3) The kitchen lighting is relatively poor, and there is not enough attention. Most kitchens only have general lighting and no local lighting on the operating table.

(4) The illuminance of the bathroom is generally low, only about 50lx. For the sake of makeup and shaving, it is necessary to increase the cost.

(5) Some of the households found in the actual measurement according to the instructions, although the light is soft, but the illumination power is low due to the small installation power of the light source, and it feels dim.

(6) The subjects did not like the cool color light source with high color temperature (such as 5000K or more), but preferred the illumination source with warm color. Second, experimental research (a) experimental purposes

The results of foreign studies show that people are paying more and more attention to the light environment of the living room. Therefore, the light environment experiment content of the house is mainly to simulate the lighting environment of the living room.

(2) Experimental content

1. Experimental program

(1) Illumination level experiment

This experiment was carried out in a controlled artificial lighting and simulated light environment in a residential living room, using two types of light sources, cool and warm, respectively, at the corresponding color temperature and at different levels of illumination. In the artificial lighting laboratory controlled, the artificial lighting environment of four kinds of activity scenes in the living room, such as watching TV, general activities, receiving guests and reunion, was carried out to conduct psychological and physiological subjective evaluation. Each activity scene corresponds to two tones of light source and four levels of illumination levels, resulting in a total of eight scenarios of light environment. There are 32 light environment solutions for the four activity scenarios.

(2) Lighting method experiment

The illumination method of the living room is an experiment of six experimental schemes for direct, indirect and mixed illumination of a cool (4728K) warm (2830K) light source with a fixed illumination of 200 lx. A total of 10 participants participated in the test. 2. experimental method

(1) Composition of the subjects

Taking into account the gender representativeness and age diversity, in the lighting level experiment, a total of 30 people with normal vision were selected, including 10 in the old, middle and young age groups, 18 males and 12 females. The age of the elderly is 60 years or older, the age of middle-aged people is 40-59 years old, and the age of young people is 20-39 years old.

(2) Experimental method

a. Illumination level experiment

In the experiment of illumination level, after the subjects entered the experiment, the main test personnel explained the purpose and method of the experiment and started the experiment after a short period of light and dark adaptation. There are a total of 32 experimental schemes. The experiment is a subjective evaluation of the illumination effect from low illumination to high illumination, from warm to cool. The evaluation results are drawn on the questionnaire of each scheme using a 5-level language difference scale. Reply. b. Lighting experiment

(3) Experimental results

1. When watching TV, the indoor environment needs low illumination level, and the indoor average illumination is 50lx.

2. In general activities, the average indoor consumption should not be too high, and the average indoor illumination is 75~~100lx.

3. When meeting guests, the average indoor illumination is 150lx (warm) or 200lx (cold).

4. When reuniting, the average indoor illuminance is 200lx~300lx, and 500lx is of course possible. How much is taken depends on personal hobbies and economic conditions.

5. From the requirements of the elderly, middle-aged and young people, the illuminance required by the elderly is slightly higher than that of the young people, but the gap is not too wide. Take the general activity as an example. The elderly are 100lx, while the young people think that 75lx is very good. .

6. From the gender difference, there is no obvious difference.

7. From the perspective of lighting, under the same illumination, whether it is warm or cool, the mixed illumination is considered to be the best, and the direct illumination is second. However, according to Ming, it is not very popular.

8. From the perspective of lighting tones, most people prefer warm colors and do not like cool colors. Third, the policy recommendations through empirical research, combined with the situation of foreign residential lighting, we propose the following:

1. Residential light environment design should use natural light as much as possible.

2. Revise current lighting design standards. In general activities, the illumination of the living room and bedroom is 75lx, but considering the needs of the reception and reunion of the living room, the average illumination of 100~~150~~200lx is recommended, and local illumination is required for reading, 300lx It is appropriate. In addition, to greatly improve the illuminance level of the kitchen and bathroom, it is recommended that the kitchen illuminance is 100 ~ ~ 150 ~ ~ 200lx. The illuminance level of the bathroom is 75~100~~150lx.

3. Energy-efficient light sources and luminaires and lighting devices should be used in residential lighting. Energy-saving fluorescent lamps (compact, thin tube, ball, ring) and matching energy-saving fluorescent lamps should be used as much as possible. Incandescent lamps are only suitable for use in places such as bathrooms where switching is frequent and color rendering is critical. The installation power per unit area of ​​the house is controlled within 7~~l0w/m2, and the light source of warm color is used as much as possible to achieve the goal of implementing green lighting.

4. When watching TV, the average indoor illumination is 50lx, and the general activity is 75~100lx. It is better to meet 150lx (warm) or 200lx (cold tone) when meeting guests. 200~~300lx is suitable for reunion.

5. The level of contrast in the elderly is higher than that of young people.